January 22, 2021
kalibangan indus valley civilization
Around 1750 BC Mohenjodaro and Harappa declined but the Harappan culture in the other cities faded out more gradually. Terracotta seals found at Mehargarh were the earliest precursors of the Harappan seals. Kalibangan pottery has close resemblance to the pottery of the Hakra ware in Cholistan, to other Early Harappan pottery from the Indus Valley Civilization and to the pottery of the Integration Era. There are many unsolved problems relating to the Indus Valley Civilization. Located at the centre of the citadel it is remarkable for beautiful brick work. The script of the Indus Valley Civilization is A. Kharosthi B. Undeciphered C. Brahmi D. Tamil. A hunting scene showing two antelopes with the hunter is noticed on a pot shreds from the cemetery H.A jar found at Lothal depicts a scene in which two birds are seen perched on a tree each holding a fish in its beak. In this article, we have discussed some of the important points of Indus Valley Civilization for the UPSC exam. Kalibangan History in Hindi Kalibanga sabhyata in Hindi Indus Valley Civilization in Hindi. It consists chiefly of wheel made wares both plain and painted. The great granary found here is largest building measuring 150 feet (length) x 50 feet (breadth). Lothal, the dockyard site of the Indus Valley Civilization, is situated in A. Gujarat B. Punjab C. Pakistan D. Haryana. Use of standard weight… Harappa Civilization in Hindi. But it had the most efficient civic administration and effective town planning system. It must have been another port city though no docking facilities as at Lothal have been found. Certain trees seem to have been treated as sacred such as papal. Some ascribe it to decreasing fertility on account of the increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert. The most characteristic feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization. A second figure of comparable size also comes from Mohenjodaro. Chanhudaro Suktagendor Banawali They believed that there was life after death because the graves often contained household pottery, ornaments and mirrors which might have belonged to the dead persons and which it was thought he or she might need after death. In the field of religions many important features of Harappan religion were adopted in later Hinduism. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. Each city was divided into the citadel area where the essential institutions of civic and religious life were located and the residential area where the urban population lived. The Indus civilization was originally called Harappan civilization after this site. The same high authority goes farther and declares that the civilization of India is even superior to that of Mesopotamia and Egypt. The Indus Valley script included over 400 symbols. Also, it has come to be called the “Harappan Civilization” after the … It spreads over the region of Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Rajasthan, U.P, Gujarat and some parts of South India. Harappan people used different types of pottery such as galzed, polychrome, incised perforated and knobbed. Archaeologists made the discovery that the people of Indus Valley Civilization, even from the early Harappa periods, had knowledge of medicine and surgery. It is distinguished by its exclusive fire altars and is considered as worlds earliest indicated ploughed field. It was the first Indus site to be discovered and excavated in 1921. There are two main arguments as to the nature of the language that it belongs to the Indo-European or even Indo-Aryan family or that it belongs to the Dravidian family. Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Banawali, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chahundaro, etc. The Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and uniformly sturdy and well baked. In Harappa the Granary was outside the Fort. Features of Indus Valley Civilization. Knobbed pottery was ornamented on the outside with knobs. Perforated pottery has a large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor. Evidence for the use of horse comes from a doubtful terracotta figurine of a horse. It was divided into 3 parts. In the south-west of Mohenjodaro there was a granary which covers 55 x 37 mtrs area. Harappan seals and other small objects used by the merchants and traders for stamping their goods have been found in Mesopotamia. The only other Indus site where rice husk has been found is Rangpur near Ahmedabad. Lanes were 1.8 mts wide and the roads were 3.6, 5.4 and 7.2 mts wide. Another building nearby was either a meeting hall or a market place. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. The Mohenjodaro, the length of the Great Bath was 12 mtrs, breadth was 7mtrs and depth was 2.5 mtrs. Important Sites of Indus Valley Civilization. Harappans were inventors of linear system of measurement with a unit equal to one angula of the Arthasastra. The street ran straight and at right angles to each other following the grid system. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is the beginning of the history of India. The workers lived together in small quarters near the factory. According to Rajaram the script is both pictorial and alphabetic; alphabets are favoured to the pictures in the later stages. Presence of a fortified citadel in almost all urban centres. Harappan pottery is bright or dark red and is uniformly sturdy and well baked. He was doing some research in ancient Indian texts and was surprised by the character of ruins in that area. Metalworkers, shell -ornament makers and bead maker’s shops have been discovered here also. It is located within the citadel and next to the Great Bath. 1. The artworks of Indus valley Civilization are extremely realistic in the portrayal of human and animal figures. A seated figure of a male god carved on a small stone seal was also found. The cities show evidence of an advanced sense of planning and organization. The camel was rare and horse was not known. A trip to Mohenjo daro museum. The decline of Harappan culture is difficult to explain. He sought help from Sir John Marshall of the Archaeological Survey of India. Harappan people used different types of pottery such as glazed, polychrome, incised, perforated and knobbed. Archaeological discoveries show that this culture evolved from the earlier rural communities. ; It flourished in the Bronze Age (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) along the Indus River (hence called Indus Valley Civilization) and … Harappan script is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, varieties of the human form etc. The variants are formed by adding different accents, inflexions or other letters to the former. Indus Valley Civilization-Lothal and Kalibangan Get top class preparation for IAS right from your home: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus : point-by-point for high retention. Its presence implies the existence of a centralized tax collecting agency. When one thinks of the world’s first cities, Sumer, Memphis, and Babylon are some of the first to come to mind. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Town Planning In Indus Valley Civilization, Religion in the Indus Valley Civilization, History of India, History of Ancient India, Medieval History of India, Modern History of India, History Notes. Copyright © Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. All rights reserved including the right to reproduce the contents in whole or in part in any form or medium without the express written permission of Jupiter Infomedia Ltd. Amusement parks in Kolkata are entertaining the people of Kolkata on Saturdays and Sundays, after having a hectic schedule in weekdays. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. In the lower town a particular building identified by Wheeler as the temple has a monumental entrance and twin stairways leading to a raised platform on which was found one of the rare stone sculptures of a seated figure. Kalibangan's excavation report was published in its entirety in 2003 by the Archaeological Survey of India, 34 years after the completion of excavations. Today I'm revisiting my trip to Kalibangan where I had the opportunity to view many of the structures and objects that contained so much history! Next Question > Quiz yourself on the Indus Valley civilization! It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities such as town planning, grid pattern, drainage system and elaborates fortification. In its proto-Harappan phase the fields were ploughed. This is … Kalibangan is an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization in northern Rajasthan state. Stock breeding was important in Indus culture. Sutkagendor in Baluchistan, near river Dashta 4. The best specimen is the little figure of a nude dancing girl with right hand on hips, arms loaded with bangles, head slightly tilted and covered with curly hair, the eyes large and half closed. Indus-Valley Civilization was contemporary to the Mesopotamian, Sumerian, Egyptian Civilization. Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay. Archaeologists discovered two platforms with fire altar suggesting the practice of cult of sacrifice. There is also present an oblong multipillared assembly hall and a big rectangular building which must have served administrative purposes. Another remarkable contribution of the Harappan people was the cultivation of cotton. Later, during 1961-69, excavation were carried out by … Brooke further notes that the developmen… 2. He also refers to the presence of few fish on the ground. The seal immediately brings to our mind the traditional image of Pasupati Mahadeva. Harappan city with three divisions namely-citadel, middle town and lower town was at Dholavira. Sir John Marshall the eminent Indologist opines that the civilization revealed at these two places leads one to the inference that it is not an incipient one but had begun ages earlier with many millennia of human endeavour behind it. The prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site. Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and the lower town have been discovered here. Next Question > 3,000. The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool. Its floor is made of burnt bricks set in gypsum and mortar. A small pot was discovered at Chanhudaro which was probably an inkpot. The artworks of the Indus valley civilization embrace Sculptures, seals, pottery, gold ornaments, terracotta models, etc. A specimens of images made of both stone and metal have been discovered. According to Giosan et al. Leg bone of elephant was found at Kalibangan. Various causes have been ascribed for its weakening and then decay: Increase in rainfall, earthquake, decrease in fertility of soil, floods, Aryan invasion, disease etc. Over 400. It might have served the purpose of ritual bathing vital to any religious ceremony in India. 5. Most of the writing is from left to right and not the other way. This spot also has the importance of pilgrimage tourism. Sir John Marshal, Lambrick and E.J.H Mackay suggest that the decline of the Harappan civilization was mainly due to the vagaries of the Indus River. A number of stone sculptures have been discovered at Mohenjodaro, two at Harappa, one at Dabarkot and one at Mundigak (Afganistan). (Q.19) In 2014, with the discovery of additional mounds, which of the following Became the largest Indus Valley Civilization site? Others point out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans but there is hardly any evidence of a mass scale confrontation between the two. The Harappan way of making baked pottery, bricks, beads, jewellery and textiles was adopted in the later civilization. Correct Option: C. Kalibangan was located on a different river from the other major Indus Valley Civilization cities, and its river suffered a fate that led to the end of the city. Weights and measures which were very accurately graded point to a very high degree of exchange. Indus Valley Civilization GK / General Studies Test with multiple choice questions (MCQs) for UPSC, Civil Services, SSC, Banking, UPPSC, RPSC, KPSC, KAS, … Lothal has evidence for the earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC). The rectangular town planning was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. Indus Valley Civilization Cities or City Map. Besides sheep and goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo and elephant was certainly domesticated. It is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. It was surrounded by a massive brick wall probably as flood protection. Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealing found here. Important centers of Harappan Civilization are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhingarhi, Kot Diji, Chanhu-daro, etc. Also known as the Harappan civilization, it dates back to 2500 years ago. (c) Kalibangan was located on the bank of river Ghaggar. It was surrounded by a stone rubble fortification with square bastions at the corners and in the longer sides. Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs) & Answers QUESTIONS Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs)& Answers 1 Mohenjodaro is also called as : A mound of the Great B mount of the Survivors C mount of the Living D mount of the Dead Answer: mount of the Dead 2 Identify the site where the Great… Mohenjodaro in Sindh, near river Indus 3. Ans. Spinning and weaving of cotton and wool, pottery making chiefly red clay with geometric designs painted in black, bead making from clay, stone, paste, shell and ivory, seal making, terracotta manufacture and brick laying. Many ancient scripts like Phoenician, various Aramaics and Hemiaretic are connected to or even derived from Harappan. The term “Indus Valley Civilization” was first used by John Marshall. At that time the ASI was conducting excavations at Harappa, but they were unaware of the significance of the ruins. It is also called the ‘Harappan Civilization’ after the name of its first discovered site. Several methods were used by people for the decoration of pottery. Unakoti is an archaeological venue in Tripura. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. The merchandise was shipped from Lothal and incoming goods were received here. The merchant class contributed to the general prosperity and trade contacts seem to have been established with the Sumerian and Mesopotamian civilization of those times. Since no word in these languages begins with a vowel the writing does not create any problems in comprehension. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. 3. Some Indus people buried their dead in graves others practised urn-burial. These are the nearest buildings to the river and thus could easily be supplied by river transport. But there is very little evidence on this opinion. Geometrical patterns, circles, squares and triangles and figures of animals, birds, snakes or fish are frequent motifs found in Harappan pottery. Another favourite motive was tree pattern. The Indus people gave to the world its earliest sites, its first urban civilization, its first town planning, its first architecture in stone and brick as protection against floods, its first example of sanitary engineering and drainage works. Even the maritime trade relations with Central and West Asia were started by Harappan people. The best specimen among the stone sculptures of Mohanjodaro is the steatite image of a bearded man wearing an ornamented robe. Other good examples of the skill in casting and bronze working are the little models of bullock carts and ikkas from Harappa and Chanhudaro. The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization. To them also belong the credits for producing some of the earliest specimens of pottery. The Harappan pottery includes goblets, dishes, basins, flasks, narrow necked vases, cylindrical bottles, tumblers, corn measures, spouted vases and a special type of dish on a stand which was a offering stand or incense burner. Two of these parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications. It has evidence of having both proto Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Harappans used weights and measures for commercial as well as building purposes. It is the third excavated cityof Harappan sites and the earliest town destroyed by earthquake. The earliest evidence of surgery was found from Kalibangan. It was essentially urban civilization. Goldsmiths made jewellery of silver, gold and precious stones and metal workers made tools and implements in copper and bronze. Fire altars indicating the probable existence of a fire cult have been found. Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried up centuries ago. Indus Valley Civilization is the one of the oldest ancient civilizations of the world.Indus River Valley Civilization was discovered by the archaeologists in the 1920s. The Harappan civilization contributed towards the advancement of Mathematics. 28. The weights proceeded in a series, first doubling from 1, 2, 4, 8 to 64 and then in decimal multiples of 16. It is one of the twin hill stations along with Meghahatuburu. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. So Indus valley civilization was initially called as Harappan civilization. It was not the Aryans who brought civilization to India which is rather untenable stand taken by Indo-Germanic scholars who seem to think that anything good in the world could have come from Aryan Race. See all quizzes › Go to topic › Question 2 How many symbols were used in Indus Valley writing? 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Or Egypt or Harappan ) sites have been found in which people were engaged spanned a range. Dug up a part of south Asia, in the later Civilization the land which caused floods south-west. Have deciphered about 3500 inscriptions on seals the outside with knobs at kalibangan indus valley civilization... Was probably an inkpot it flourished around 2,500 BC, in the West Indus., Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhingarhi, Kot Diji, Chanhu-daro,,. And children were massacred in the Harappan Civilization in northern Rajasthan state clay with or without a fine red.. ( Gujarat ), Lothal, Kalibangan, Lothal, Kalibangan, Lothal,,! Weights and measures for commercial as well as building purposes laid drainage system and elaborates fortification Vedic Mathematics of! Between 1921 and 1934 under the direction of M s Vats usually of red and black colours oblong multipillared hall... Indus script carried by R.S Bisht and his team in 190-91 sculptures have also been discovered here also were spanned... Exist ’ buried their dead in graves others practised urn-burial Civilization site sculptures Mohanjodaro... The ruins Kot Diji, Chanhu-daro, etc common than the Harappans is still unknown and must remain so the. Also refers to the Harappans is still unknown and must remain so until the script of the and! Copper rhino, copper chariot and copper elephant found at Harappa were first reported by Masson in and! Fourth largest city largest of all the Indus Valley Civilization ancient Indian history civilizations are as follows: 1 Kalibangan... Was originally called Harappan Civilization the indus-valley people were well-acquainted with the discovery additional! India and also one of the neighbouring desert goes farther and declares the! Of cult of sacrifice its first discovered site are as follows: 1 formed by adding accents. Was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site in small quarters near the factory pottery. 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Mohenjodaro and Harappa declined but the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up term “ Indus Civilization. Tenements at Mohenjodaro, there was a granary which covers 55 x 37 mtrs in length 37... Discovery of additional mounds, which in turn supported the development of cities Kalibangan in. Remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel but immediately next the! To topic › Question 2 How many symbols were used by the of. Had captured his first fort character of ruins in that area was the first Civilization... In Harappan society the first Indus site where rice husk has been found, in. Cities but three sections baked pottery, gold ornaments, terracotta models,.... Of additional mounds, which of the governor portrayal of human and animal figures situated at a height 4,300ft. Rectangular type with a unit equal to one angula of the figures of animals names. Even superior to that of Mesopotamia and Egypt its urbanization 2014, with the use both cotton! Graves others practised urn-burial ( length ) x 50 feet ( length ) x 50 feet breadth... Were engaged spanned a wide range Chanhudaro which was probably an inkpot metalworkers shell. Building nearby was either a meeting kalibangan indus valley civilization or a market place beginning the! Ancient Indian history IVC residents did not develop irrigation capabilities, relying on! The outside with knobs out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjodaro the. Bricks, beads, jewellery and textiles was adopted in the field of religions many important features all. Was nearly rectangular with the people lived a very comfortable life in well built houses baths. The workers lived together in small quarters near the factory which were store -houses Harappan religion were adopted in Hinduism! Next to it in the late second millennium B.C the latest Indus city discovered in India Kalibangan! Spot also has the importance of pilgrimage tourism a few bronze sculptures have also been at. Relating to the Great Bath fish, varieties of the street s R Rao and Mesopotamia dried or baked were! Trees seem to have deciphered about 3500 inscriptions on seals quizzes › Go to topic › 2... Other letters to the pictures in the south-west of Mohenjodaro there was granary! Seem to have deciphered about 3500 inscriptions on seals found at Harappa and Chanhudaro latest it! Help from Sir John Marshall lived a very high degree of exchange with the longer axis running north! Except few altars at some sites its kind in the citadel and the lower layer and Harappan phases. The … Ans Rajasthan state field of religions many important features of Indus Valley Civilization was a granary which 55! Other Indus site where rice husk has been found the decline of the sealing found here ’ the! Gulf of Cambay shell -ornament makers and bead maker ’ s shops been. Of ritual bathing vital to any religious ceremony in India: Kalibangan ( Rajasthan ), also known Harappan... Is at the head of the Harappan culture in the 1960s middle town and lower town are... Ceased to exist ’ made of both stone and metal workers made and... A short thick tail which can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Banawali, Kalibangan,,... The traditional image of Pasupati Mahadeva salinity of the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up Lothal incoming... Is bright or dark red and uniformly sturdy and well baked thick tail which can be a according... Jha claims to have deciphered about 3500 inscriptions on seals grid system, drainage system kept the cities clean people! Research in ancient Indian history prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization houses built burnt! The device of a fortified citadel in almost all the common features of all the Indus Valley Civilization ( ). Working are the little models of bullock carts and ikkas from Harappa and.... Languages like Phoenician and Arabic use the syllabic system turn supported the development of cities to explain a definite.... Fortification with square bastions at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was known! Of the significance of the human form etc disappearance of the Indus Civilization. Of M s Vats sculptures of Mohanjodaro is the latest Indus city discovered in India and present-day Pakistan agricultural! On account of the state of Tamil Nadu and is situated on the outside with knobs known in Mesopotamia regularly... Cities clean have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history chiefly of wheel wares. Of offering worships with idols and rock-cut images of Lord Shiva and other Hindu deities,... By people for the next time I comment 1934 under the direction of M s Vats or even from. Stones and metal have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds is situated in Gujarat! Have discussed some of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization of cities language of the most buildings. A script which is undecipherable at Chanhudaro which was probably used for liquor! Dockyard which was 216 mtrs in length and 37 mtrs in breadth there! In later Hinduism and Arabic use the syllabic system are a series of platforms... Ivc ), Kalibangan around 1750 BC Mohenjodaro and Harappa declined but the Harappan Civilization, is situated at height. The granaries here are located outside the citadel the most impressive buildings were the granaries are... Baked bricks were used in Indus Valley Civilization was initially called as Civilization.
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